Total Knee Arthroplasty

Total Knee Arthroplasty

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Total Knee Arthroplasty

Knee

What is Total Knee Arthroplasty?

Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), also known as total knee replacement (TKR), is a surgical procedure to replace the knee joint surfaces with artificial components. The bones of the knee joint are removed, and new parts are put in their place.

The parts that go into a TKA include the femur, or thigh bone; the patella or kneecap; and the tibia and fibula, which are two long bones in the lower leg that connect with the femur at the knee.

The replacement surfaces can be made out of metal or polyethylene (plastic). Metal implants are stronger than plastic ones, but they may cause more pain after surgery and may wear out faster. An advantage of polyethylene is that it requires less maintenance since it does not need to be removed from your body when it wears out.

What is the purpose of Total Knee Arthroplasty?

The purpose of the surgery is to relieve pain caused by arthritis or other conditions affecting your knees. It is used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other forms of degenerative arthritis.

When you need a Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)?

The most common reason for needing a TKA is osteoarthritis, which is when the cartilage in your knee wears away. This can happen from injury or overuse. Other causes include rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, and infection.

Osteoarthritis: This occurs when cartilage wears away from bones rubbing together. This can cause pain and swelling in your knees.

Rheumatoid arthritis: This is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in your joints, which leads to pain and stiffness in them. In rheumatoid arthritis, your joints can become so stiff that they no longer bend properly causing problems walking comfortably without pain or discomfort.”

What are the types of  Total Knee Arthroplasty?

There are two main types of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA):

  1. Partial Knee Replacement
  2. Total Knee Replacement

Unicompartmental or Partial Knee Replacement

This is a surgery that only replaces one side of the knee. It is usually done when there is damage to one compartment of the knee. This surgery is often done to relieve pain from arthritis, but it can also be done to repair a torn meniscus or ligament.

Total Knee Replacement

In this type of surgery, both sides (and compartments) of the knee are replaced with artificial components. It is a more extensive procedure than unicompartmental knee replacement and requires a longer recovery time.

What is the procedure of  Total Knee Arthroplasty?

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a procedure that replaces the entire knee joint with artificial components. The procedure can be performed both with the use of general anesthesia and with the patient awake and sedated through the use of local anesthesia.

The procedure consists of four basic steps:

Step 1 – Prepare the bone

Surgeons remove most of your damaged cartilage and smooth out the femoral (thigh) bone, which allows for better fit with the new implant.

Step 2 – Position the metal implants

Metal implants are positioned into place over each end of your thighbone (femur) and shinbone (tibia). These implants provide an anchor for other parts of your new knee joint.

Step 3 – Resurface the patella (kneecap)

The underside (patellar) section of your kneecap is resurfaced with a piece of plastic that fits over this bone. This reshaped patellar will help to ensure that your kneecap sits in its proper position as you move about after surgery.

Step 4 – Insert a spacer

A spacer is placed between your new knee joint and thighbone as well as between your new knee joint and shinbone in order to help properly align these bones before they are permanently fused together during final surgery.

What are the risks of  Total Knee Arthroplasty?

The most common complication after a total knee replacement is infection, which occurs in about 5 percent of people who have this surgery. If an infection develops, you may need antibiotics or other treatment to get rid of it.

Other possible complications include bleeding, blood clots and swelling in the leg or foot, nerve injury causing pain or loss of sensation (paralysis), and problems with wound healing or bone reabsorption.

Recommended Exercise

Knee

Exercises after Total Knee Replacement

There are several exercises that you can do after a total knee replacement that will help you regain your strength and flexibility. These exercises will also help prevent injury and promote healing.

Quad Squeezes

This exercise is designed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles, which are located on the front of the thigh. In order to perform this exercise, sit on the edge of a chair with your feet flat on the floor. Lift your left leg up until it is parallel to the ground and then lower it back down slowly. Repeat this movement 10 times for each leg before switching sides.

Short arcs quads

This exercise strengthens your quadriceps by helping you practice moving through different ranges of motion without putting any weight on your legs yet!

Short arc quad exercises are similar to quad squeezes but involve more movement of the knee joint. As with quad squeezes, do two sets of 10 repetitions per leg at first and then increase to three sets over time if necessary.

Step-ups

After 3 to 6 weeks, begin performing step-ups with the help of a chair or a couch. Stand on the lower surface and raise yourself up using your good leg. Bend your bad knee slightly and lower yourself back down. Repeat 10 times for each leg.

Straight Leg Raises

After 2 to 4 weeks, perform straight leg raises using a pillow or blanket under your knee for support. Lift your leg about 2 inches off the bed and hold for 5 seconds before lowering it back down slowly and gently. Do 10 repetitions per session.

Wall Squats

6 weeks or more after surgery, begin wall squats while keeping your back against a wall (this will help support you). Slowly bend your knees as far as they will go without pain and hold that position for 5 seconds before slowly returning to standing upright again.

Explanation of Recommended Orthotic Device

Knee

What type of brace do you wear after knee replacement surgery?

The type of brace you wear after knee replacement surgery is dependent on your surgeon. Most people wear a knee immobilizer, which prevents them from bending or straightening their knee. This is a safety measure to ensure that the new joint does not dislocate or become damaged in any way during the healing process.

What precautions to Take After Total Knee Replacement Surgery?

After total knee replacement surgery, you will have to take some precautions to ensure that you heal properly and avoid complications.

The first 12 weeks after the surgery are critical and you must follow these instructions closely in order to avoid injury:

  • Avoid strenuous activity for at least 6 weeks and avoid heavy lifting for at least 4-6 weeks.
  • Avoid sleeping on side for at least 2 months after surgery.
  • Take pain medications as prescribed by your doctor to relieve pain and inflammation.
  • Your doctor may recommend that you use ice packs or heat therapy to reduce swelling and pain around the incision site until it has healed completely.
  • Do not bend your knee more than 90 degrees for six weeks after surgery.
  • Do not put any weight on your leg for six weeks after surgery, except when using a walker or crutches for walking purposes only (not for leaning).
  • Limit or avoid strenuous activities for four weeks after surgery, such as walking upstairs, running, jogging or playing sports (including basketball).

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